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2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

2019-10-24 01:30

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第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

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一。考纲要求

翻译技巧中的“葵花宝典”

  语法知识点1

考试大纲要求考生能正确判断句子的类型、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选择适当的连接词语、判断主语和从句的正确语序、恰当选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

且看它们有多重要,看图别看我:

  1.as...as.。。引导的比较级:(1)“as 形容词或副词原级 as 被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你一样学习努力。

二。命题导向

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  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高考对简单句、并列句和复合句的考查主要包括:句子的结构、连词的选择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习惯用语和特殊的句式应用。

蓝色圈出部分~~

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only 状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

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  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。 

1.简单句、并列句和复合句

字不重要,看图~~

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

① 句子种类两种分类法

谁掌握as、v+ing、with,谁就得练神功。这三个功能词怎么用呢?且看下文,我只是个搬运工。有需要的朋友,动动你的手指,复制、粘贴、打印。我是你的好朋友曾沐!

  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish 后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为: 

按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分:陈述句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、感叹句等四种。

文章结尾处有彩蛋~~不谢!

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

按照句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

一、as的用法

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) 

简单句只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

1.as用作连词引导时间状语从句

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had 过去分词。 

② 并列句的分类

as与when,while都是引导时间状语从句的从属连词,含义都是"当……的时候"。

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。) 

并列句指把两个同等重要的句子连接在一起,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

但它们有区别

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might 动词原形”。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。 

表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

用when时,从句的动作可以与主句的动作同时发生,也可以先于主句的动作发生;

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能停止。 

表示转折关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

用while时,从句的动作为一过程,主句动作与从句动作同时进行或在从句动作过程中发生;

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

用as时,主句和从句的动作同时发生,具有延续的含义。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我希望你安静一些。 

2.状语从句:

例如:

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语一样,  我们常用it 来作形式宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的分类

(1)It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明他不会屈服。 

状语从句通常修饰主句的动词或整个句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不充当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不同意义和功能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、比较、方式等状语从句。

他到达工地时,天正在下雪。

  5.The 比较级,the 比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的词语

(2)He was watching TV while his mother was cooking.

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

时间状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.一……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一次,last time最后一次,every/each time每次,the next time下次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

他母亲做饭时他在看电视。

  语法知识点2

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

(3) You will grow wiser as you grow older.

  1. 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

你会随着年龄的增长而越来越聪明。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

让步状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

2.as用作连词引导原因状语从句

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如果;只要),in case (万一); on condition that(如果), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

as,because,since都可以表示因果关系,连接原因状语从句,含义是"因为,由于"。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

但它们有区别

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 引导。

because表示的语气最强;

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

as一般放在句首,语气较弱,较口语化;

  4. If虚拟条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

since常常用在书面语中,表示多为对方已知的、或稍加分析便可得知的原因,有时可译作"既然"。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could 动原
跟过去事实相反 had done would/should/might/could have done
跟将来事实相反 should 动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could 动原

(3)从句中的语序

例如:

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

复合句中通常采用陈述语序。但是,在下面的几种情况下,状语从句多采用倒装语序:

(1) He will succeed because he is in earnest.

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接让步状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成部分倒装语序。例如:

他一定会成功,因为他很认真。

  6.状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

(2) Since you are so sure of ithe”ll believe you.

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

既然你对此如此有把握,他会相信你的。  

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

(3) As rain has fallen, the air is cooler.

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so 形容词/副词或such 名词置于句首时,主句采用部分倒装语序。例如:

因为下过雨,空气比较清爽。

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 sb 表示“前者情况适用于后者”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

3.as作连词引导让步状语从句

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

as与although (或though),however (或no matter how)等都可以引导让步状语从句,含义是"虽然,尽管"。

  3.定语从句 who引导的限定性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第一个分句采用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈述语序。例如:

但它们有区别

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

although语气稍正式些,可放在句首,也可放在句中,主句中不能再用but,但可以用yet;

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一起引导让步状语从句,句子采用陈述语序。例如:

as所表示的语气较强,引导的让步状语从句用倒装语序;

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

however引导让步状语从句时,它的后面可跟形容词或副词,也要用倒装语序。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the 比较级the 比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

例如:

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的不同之处在于,now that 引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用 now that 引导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

(1) Although he is quite old, he still jogs every day.

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态一般遵循以下的规律:

他虽然年纪相当大,仍然每天慢跑。

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

①表示“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

(2) Strange as it may seem, nobody was injured in the accident.

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“将来”意义的条件、时间和让步状语从句中多用一般现在时,而主句用一般将来时,被称为“主将从现”。例如:Tom won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

这次意外虽然显得令人不可思议,却没有人受伤。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

as, though表示“虽然……但是”,“纵使……”之意。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

as引导的让步状语从句必须以部分倒装的形式出现,被倒装的部分可以是表语、状语或动词原形,though间或也用于这样的结构中,但although不可以这样用。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

例如:

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 引导的状语从句中,如果表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。例如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

Object as you may, I’ll go.

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的省略

(=Though/Although you may object, I’ll go.)

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词 过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词 现在分词。例如:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

纵使你反对,我也要去。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

Hard as/ though he works, he makes little progress. (=Though he works hard, he makes little progress.)

(6)状语从句被用于强调结构中

尽管他学习很努力,但几乎没取得什么进步。   Child as/though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.(=Though he was a child, he knew what was the right thing to do.)

状语从句作为被强调部分用于强调结构时,一律用It is/was …that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当强调Not until 时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。例如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

虽然他是一个孩子,但他知道该做什么。

  1. 名词性从句

Fast as you read, you can’t finish the book so soon.

(1)名词性从句分类:

纵然你读得快,你也不能这么快读完这本书。

按照在句中的功能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句四种。

(3) However hard he may try, he will not attain his goal.

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

无论他怎样努力也达不到目标。

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可被省略;表示“是否”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。如果从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用连接代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;如果从句缺少状语,用连接副词when, where, how, why。

4.as作关系代词的用法

由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether 和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

关系代词as引导定语从句时,既可以单独使用,也可以与其他词连用,其用法要比that和which更为复杂。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

(1)as引导定语从句与其他词连用

① 在以下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should 动词原形”, should可省略。

①用于the same...as结构中

(1)It is 形容词 that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

This is the same book as I read last week.

(2) It is 名词 that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(提议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

这本书和我上周读的那本是一样。

(3) It is 动词的过去分词 that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②用于such...as结构中

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐), request(请求,要求), demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”, should可省略。

I don”t like such books as he recommends.

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”,should可省略。

我不喜欢他推荐的那些书。

④在一些表示惊讶、意志等感情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should 动词原形”或“should have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

③用于"so adj. a/an n. (单数) as "结构中

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I am not so strong a man as I was.

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

我已经没有从前那么强壮了。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

(2)as单独引导定语从句 as单独引导定语从句时,先行词可以是一个词,也可以是一个句子或短语。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

例如:

  1. 定语从句

(1) She is late, as is often the case.

(1)定语从句的分类

她迟到了,这是经常的事。

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和解释说明作用。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

(先行词是整个主句)

(2)定语从句的关系代词和关系副词

(2) To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.

定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

对事实视而不见--你们好多人都是如此的愚蠢。

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

(先行词是不定式短语)

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

5.as作介词的用法 as作介词,意思是"作为","以……身份"

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

例如:

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)

He came to China as a tourist five years ago.

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

他五年前以游客的身份来过中国。

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个问题

6.as作副词的用法 to the same degree or amount; equally "相同地","同样地"。

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。例如:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

例如:

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

They don”t have as many airplanes.

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

他们没有同样多的飞机。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

二、动词ing形式的用法

② 用which而不用 that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面 关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

一)Ving形式作定语

③ 关系代词as的用法

分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;

a. 当现行词为 the same 名词,such 名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。例如:

单个分词作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之前。

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

例如:

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

The man standing by the window is our teacher. Many frightened people rushed out of the burning building.  

b. as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

Ving作定语主要表示动作和用途。

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

  1. 表示动作(主动的、进行的动作)。

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as引导;反之,用which来引导非限制性定语从句;当非限制定语从句为否定意义时,常用which引导。例如:

a waiting car = the car that is waiting

He made a long speech, as we expected。

a sleeping child 熟睡的孩子

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

The girl standing there is my sister.

④关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。例如:

站在那儿的女孩是我的姐妹。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

[注意]现在分词作定语时,它表示的动作是正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作几乎同时发生,如果两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。

⑤ 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 which”来代替。例如:

例如: The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window. 老师批评了打破窗户的学生。

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

  1. 表示用途:

⑥在”介词 关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不能省略;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。例如:

the waiting room = the room for waiting 候车室

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

a working method 工作方法

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He has a reading room. 他有一个书房。

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【比较】

过去分词作定语:及物动词的过去分词表示被动,不及物动词的过去分词表示动作完成。  

例如:

That is the book written by Lu Xun. 那是鲁迅写的书。

He is a returned student. 他是一个归国的留学生。

不定式作定语: 用不定式作定语,其经常所修饰的名词、代词有: meeting, reason, time, way, need, right, chance, decision, wish, promise, ability, anxiety, something, anything, nothing, anybody, somebody, thing...

例如: We have no time to lose.

我们没有时间(可以浪费)了。

That’s the plan to build the factory.

那就是建那座工厂的计划。

(二)Ving形式作宾语补足语

  1. 在keep, find, notice, have, feel, hear, see, leave...等动词后常用Ving形式作宾语补足语。 例如:

1) The boss kept the workers working the whole night.

那个老板让工人整夜地工作。

2) We found the old lady lying in bed.

我们发现那老太太躺在床上。

  1. 在感官动词:

see, hear, look at, notice, observe, feel, find...等及使役动词:have, make, leave, keep, get...等后既可以用不定式也可以用Ving形式作宾语补足语。不定式(不带 to)表示过程或动作完成,Ving形式强调进行或当时情景。

例如:

I saw the lady crossing the street.

我看见那位妇人在过马路。

We heard her sing two songs.

我们听她唱了两首歌。

(三)Ving形式作主语 Ving形式具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作主语。   Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

It is no use arguing with him.

和他争论没有用。

Ving形式作主语常用于下列句型:

【句型1】It is 名词(或形容词) 动名词 It is no use /no  good/ a waste of time so nice crying there.doing that.

例如:

1) It’s a waste of time waiting here. 在这里等是浪费时间。

2) It’s so nice talking to you. 很高兴和你谈话。

【句型2】 There is no 动名词    

例如: There is no stopping of him. 无法阻拦他。

There was no telling of the difference. 无法加以区别。

【注意】

① Ving形式和不定式都可以作主主语,Ving形式作主语表示一般或抽象的 多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。

例如:

Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)

To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)

但在It is no use / good, not any use / good, useless 等后必须用Ving形式。

② Ving形式作主语,谓语动词用单数。

如: Forgetting the past means betrayal.

忘记过去就意味着背叛。

(四)Ving形式作表语 Ving形式具有形容词和名词的性质,在句中可作表语。作表语用的Ving形式有两种:

一种用作名词,一种用作形容词。

用作名词时,说明主语的内容,就此提问时,用what ;

用作形容词时,说明主语的特征,用how进行提问。

例如:

Her favourite job is teaching English.→ What is her favourite job?   It is interesting to read such a story. → How is it to read such a story?

(五)Ving形式作宾语 Ving形式具有动词和名词的性质,在句中起名词作用,可作宾语。

He is fond of playing football. I like swimming. 他很喜欢足球,我喜欢游泳。

【注意】①admit, appreciate, avoid,consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, include, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest, can’t help, can’t stand等动词后可以用Ving形式作宾语,但不能用不定式。

②forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop, try等动词可带Ving形式或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。

试比较:

I remember doing the exercise.

我记得做过练习。

I must remember to do it.

我必须记着做这事。

I tried not to go there.

我设法不去那里。

I tried doing it again.

我试着又干了一次。

Stop speaking.  

不要讲话。

He stopped to talk.

他停下来讲话。

I mean to come early today.

我打算今天来早些。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour.

误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。

③在allow, advise, forbid, permit 等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用Ving形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后在跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。

例如:

We don’t allow smoking here. we don’t allow students to smoke.

④动词need, require, want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用Ving形式,或不定式的被动式,这时,Ving形式的主动形式表示被动意义。

例如:

The window needs (requires, wants) cleaning (to be cleaned).

⑤在短语devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to, thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty / trouble / problem(in), have a good / wonderful / hard time(in), feel  like, get down to等后的动词也必须用Ving形式。

例如:

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

⑥在love, hate, prefer等动词后用Ving形式或不定式无大的区别。但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。

⑦start, begin, continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。

⑧在should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。

【知识拓展】 Ving形式的时态和语态

  1. Ving形式的时态 Ving形式的时态分一般式和完成式两种,如果Ving形式的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动词同时发生或在谓语动词以前发生,用Ving形式的一般式。

例如:

His coming will be of great  help to us.

如果Ving形式的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用Ving形式的完成时态。

例如:

I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.

  1. Ving形式的语态 主语是这个Ving形式所表示的动作的对象时,Ving形式用被动语态。

被动语态由“being 过去分词”或“having been 过去分词”构成,后一种一般避免使用。

例如:

He likes being helped.

He was afraid of being left at home.

在to be worth doing 句型中,Ving形式doing表示的是被动意义。

例 如:

The book is worth reading.

动词的-ing形式是英语中非谓语动词的一种,它在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语及补足语。

由于这种形式是由动词变化而来的,因此它具有动词的一些特征,即可带自己的宾语和状语,从而构成动词 -ing短语。它有时态和语态的变化,也有否定形式及其复合结构形式。    

现以动词do为例,其变化形式如下:

复合结构形式在句中主要作主语和宾语。作宾语时可用代词宾格或名词普通格加上动词的-ing形式。

一、 动词-ing形式作主语(通常指一个抽象动作)时,它可直接置于主语位置,也可以用it作形式主语,而把作真正主语的动词-ing形式放在句子的后部。

例如:

  1. Knowing table manners will help you make a good impression.

  2. Having a cellphone also makes us feel safer, since we can call for help in case of an emergency.

  3. It’s no use crying over spilt milk. 4. His coming made us very happy. (复合结构作主语)

二、 动词-ing形式作宾语。

例如:

  1. Having good table manners means knowing how to use knives and forks, when to drink a toast and how to behave at the table.

  2. Do you prefer living in the zoo or living in the jungle?

  3. I really can’t understand you treating her like that.

[注意]

  1. 下列动词后面通常要用动词-ing形式作宾语。 enjoy, finish, stop, mind, suggest, practise, excuse(原 谅),appreciate, keep, risk(冒险), consider, admit, miss(错过), imagine, avoid(避免), delay(推迟) resist, cannot help等。

  2. 在need, want, require, be worth 等动词(短语)后面常用动词    -ing的主动形式表示被动意义。

例如:

The flowers want watering.

三、 动词-ing形式作表语(常指主语的内容、状态或性质等)。

例如:

My interests are reading  novels, playing football and singing songs.    

The film was so moving that we saw it twice.

四、 动词-ing形式作定语

单个的动词-ing形式作定语时,常置于所修饰的名词前面;动词-ing短语作定语时则常置于被修饰的词后面。

例如:

  1. English is the working language of most international. organizations, international trade and tourism.

  2. The building being built now will be our library.

五、 动词-ing形式作状语

动词-ing形式作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、伴随状况、条件、结果等。

例如:

  1. Hearing the good news, he jumped with great joy. (时间)

  2. Seeing nobody at home, he decided to leave them a note. (原因)

  3. The next moment the first wave swept her down, swallowing the garden. (伴随状况)

  4. In Sydney the Chinese team got 28 gold medals, ranking third of all the competing countries.

(结果) 注意:

  1. 动词-ing形式(短语)作状语时的几个特性。

① 时间性。如果动词-ing形式所表表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,则用一般式;如果动词-ing形式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前则使用完成式。

② 语态性。应考虑动词-ing形式与句子主语之间的关系是主谓关系还是动宾关系,据此来确定语态。

③ 人称的一致性。动词-ing形式的逻辑主语应和句子的主语一致。

  1. 动词-ing形式前可以加when, while, though等从属连词,这可以视为状语从句的省略。

例如:

When drinking to someone’s health, you raise your glasses, but the glasses should not be touched. While visiting the city, they received a warm welcome.

六、 动词-ing形式作补足语

例如:

  1. He found the wall being painted.

  2. With so many people communicating in English every day, it will become more and more important to have a good knowledge of English.    

通常,宾语补足语与宾语之间有着逻辑上的主谓关系,动词-ing形式作宾语补足语往往表示其动作在延续或进行中,用动词-ing作宾语补足语的常见的动词有:

have, get, send, leave等使役动词;

see, hear, watch, observe, notice, catch, find, listen to,look at等感官动词。

当这些动词用于被动语态时,作宾语补足语的动词-ing形式就相应变成了主语补足语。

三、with的用法

with结构是许多英语复合结构中最常用的一种。学好它对学好复合宾语结构、不定式复合结构、动名词复合结构和独立主格结构均能起很重要的作用。

一、 with结构的构成

它是由介词with或without 复合结构构成,复合结构作介词with或without的复合宾语,复合宾语中第一部分宾语由名词或代词充当,第二部分补足语由形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式或分词充当,分词可以是现在分词,也可以是过去分词。

With结构构成方式如下

  1. with或without-名词/代词 形容词;

  2. with或without-名词/代词 副词;

  3. with或without-名词/代词 介词短语;

  4. with或without-名词/代词 动词不定式;

  5. with或without-名词/代词 分词。

下面分别举例:

1、 She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.

(with 名词 形容词,作伴随状语)

2、 With the meal over , we all went home.

(with 名词 副词,作时间状语)

3、The master was walking up and down with the ruler under his arm。

(with 名词 介词短语,作伴随状语。)

The teacher entered the classroom with a book in his hand.

4、He lay in the dark empty house,with not a man ,woman or child to say he was kind to me.

(with 名词 不定式,作伴随状语)

He could not finish it without me to help him.

(without 代词 不定式,作条件状语)

5、She fell asleep with the light burning.

(with 名词 现在分词 ,作伴随状语)

6、Without anything left in the cupboard, she went out to get something to eat.

(without 代词 过去分词,作为原因状语) 二、with结构的用法 在句子中with结构多数充当状语,表示行为方式,伴随情况、时间、原因或条件(详见上述例句)。

With结构在句中也可以作定语

例如:

1.I like eating the mooncakes with eggs.

2.From space the earth looks like a huge water-covered globe with a few patches of land sticking out above the water.

3.A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house.

三、 with结构的特点

1. with结构由介词with或without 复合结构构成。复合结构中第一部分与第二部分语法上是宾语和宾语补足语关系,而在逻辑上,却具有主谓关系,也就是说,可以用第一部分作主语,第二部分作谓语,构成一个句子。

例如:

With him taken care of,we felt quite relieved.(欣慰)→(He was taken good care of.)

She fell asleep with the light burning. →(The light was burning.)

With her hair gone,there could be no use for them. →(Her hair was gone.)

  1. 在with结构中,第一部分为人称代词时,则该用宾格代词。

例如: He could not finish it without me to help him.

四、 几点说明:

  1. with结构在句子中的位置:

with 结构在句中作状语,表示时间、条件、原因时一般放在句子前面,并用逗号与句子分开;表示方式和伴随状况时一般放在句子后面,不用逗号分开。

若with结构作定语,则放在所修饰的名词之后,一般不用逗号隔开。

  1. with结构作状语时,不定式、现在分词 、和过去分词的区别:

在with结构中,不定式、现在分词作宾补,表示主动,但是不定式表示将要发生的动作,而现在分词表示正在发生或发生了的动作;过去分词表示被动或完成。

例如: With the boy leading the way,we found he house easily.

(小男孩已领过路)

With the boy to lead the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow.

(小男孩明天将领路)He lay on the bed with the bedroom door shut.(寝室被关着)

  1. with结构与一般的with短语的区别

with结构具有上述功能和特点,而"介词with 名词或代词(组)"组成的一般的with短语在句子中可以作定语和状语。

作状语时,它能表示动作的方式、原因,但不能表示时间、伴随和条件。在一般的with短语中,with后面所跟的不是复合结构,也根本没有逻辑上的主谓关系。

  1. with结构与独立主格结构的关系: with结构属于独立主格结构,但在结构上,with结构由介词with或without引导,名词前有冠词、形容词、所有格代词或其它词类所修饰,结构较松散;

而独立主格结构没有with或without引导,结构严密,名词前可用可不用修饰语。在句句法功能上,with结构可以作定语,独立主格结构则不能;独立主格结构通常在句中作状语,但也可以作主语,而with结构则不能。

独立主格在口语中不常用,往往由一个从句代替,而with结构较口语化,较常用。

例如: There were rows of white houses with trees in front of them.

("with 复合宾语"结构,在句中作定语)

A strong man working a whole day could not jump this high.

(名词 现在分词构成的独立主格结构,作主语)

The boy said,turning to the man,his eyes opened wide and his hand raised.

(独立主格结构,表示伴随状况或行为方式,作状语)

Then last night,I followed him here,and climbed in,sword in hand.

(名词 介词短语构成的独立主格结构,作状语,表示伴随情况)。

内容有点多,下篇文章,我将用我们的方式解读这三个功能词,我们的目标是最简单、最有趣、最精准的搞定考点。

另外,想要了解其它在备考过程中,其它内容的朋友,请关注我的其他文章:

CATTI三级笔译备考日记(一):真正开始看书前,我做了什么?

CATTI英语三级笔译备考日记(二):汉译英十大翻译技巧?我脑子笨,就不能说得简单点,详细点?

CATTI英语三级笔译备考日记(三):请叫我管家,叫我项目经理也可以

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