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全国工商管理硕士研究生考试英语模拟试题

2019-11-12 08:12

  一想到……就害怕的身体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of England。

  矛盾的状态 paradoxical state of affairs

the maximum profit.[C] A flower stall in which the various species of flowers are arranged according to their price.[D] A housing development in which the length of the front struts supporting the porch of each

  由细菌引起的:Have a bacterial cause

Before you begin examining potential investments, it’s important to take some time to assess your own goals and risk tolerance. If you start with a clear objective in mind, as well as an understanding as to how you might react if your investment loses money, you’ll be less likely to purchase a fund that doesn’t fit your needs. And that’s what often leads to disappointment. It is important to look for funds that are appropriate for both your goals and your investment temperament。

  遭受一些令人难受的遗传性疾病

Directions:

  ●巩固习题

Proponents of different jazz styles have always argued that their predecessor’s musical style did not include essential characteristics that define jazz as jazz. Thus, 1940’s swing was belittled by beboppers of the 1950’s who were themselves attacked by free jazzes of the 1960’s. The neoboppers of the 1980’s and 1990’s attacked almost everybody else. The titanic figure of Black saxophonist John Coltrane has complicated the arguments made by proponents of styles from bebop through neobop because in his own musical journey he drew from all those styles. His influence on all types of jazz was immeasurable. At the height of his popularity, Coltrane largely abandoned playing bebop, the style that had brought him fame, to explore the outer reaches of jazz。

  以前被认为是不相关的have previously been thought unrelated

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds preserved their culture in the United States。

  不依附于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

42.

  ●巩固习题

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to

  被看做基因隔离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

[F] Not too special

  参考译文:他帮助普及这样一个观点,即以前认为不是由细菌引起的某些疾病实际上就是传染病,该观点第一次提出来的时候,引起了很大的争议。

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

paragraph of the text?[A] A vegetable market in which the various items are grouped according to place of origin. [B] A wheat field in which different varieties of wheat are planted to yield a crop that will bring

  帮助普及该观点:Help popularize the idea

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  真题段落二:

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do。

  文章来源:文都教育

Finally, remember that the ultimate measure of your success as an investor depends not on your owning the best-performing mutual fund. Only one fund will be the top performer over the next decade, and there’s no way to predict which one it will be. Meeting your own financial goals should ultimately be the yardstick by which you measure your investment success.

  希望通过这两段真题中的段落,能让考生认识到应该积累何种固定搭配,寒假是打牢根基的好时节,希望各位考生能够踏实备考。预祝大家备考顺利,取得理想佳绩!

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis。

  引起了很大的争议:Arouse much controversy

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

  许多正在准备2016研究生考生的考生都询问都教授,考研[微博]英语在寒假中应该怎样备考呢,都教授认为,英语在寒假阶段重在基础积累,除了词汇的记忆外,固定搭配也是一大重点,能够帮助考生更好的理解段落文章主旨。下面都教授就利用真题带各位考生来看看应该重点记忆何种搭配的词汇。

Part B

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

Funds that invest solely in a single market sectors, called specialty funds, often have impressive returns and may be great additions to a diversified portfolio. However, the success of such funds depends largely on the fortunes of a particular market sector. Hence, specialty funds probably aren’t the best way to start. For your first fund, look for a diversified stock fund that has exposure to different types of stocks。

  ●高频搭配

4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined

  参考译文:Cochran博士认为,高智商与疾病密切相关。

It is not easy to talk about the role of the mass media in this overwhelmingly significant phase in European history. History and news become confused, and one’s impressions tend to be a mixture of skepticism and optimism. Television is one of the means by which these feelings are created and conveyed -- and perhaps never before has it served so much to connect different peoples and nations as in the recent events in Europe. The Europe that is now forming cannot be anything other than its peoples, their cultures and national identities. With this in mind we can begin to analyze the European television scene. In Europe, as elsewhere, multi-media groups have been increasingly successful: groups which bring together television, radio, newspapers, magazines and publishing houses that work in relation to one another. One Italian example would be the Berlusconi group, while abroad Maxwell and Murdoch come to mind。

  真题段落一:

Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead。

  密切相关 be intimately linked

  1. In terms of its tone and form, the text can best be characterized as [A] dogmatic explanation. [B] indignant denial. [C] enthusiastic praise. [D] speculative study。

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately linked.

[A] Watching related expenses and making wise choice

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前面 the idea 的同位语从句,not previously thought to have a bacterial cause做后置定语修饰前面的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually infections.

The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New World was simply a natural spillover. Although at first the colonies held little positive attraction for the English — they would rather have stayed home — by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical New World community. For example, the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied considerably。

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

meaning of the difference between left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish?[A] “Most striking” (line 3, paragraph 1)[B] “variation is adaptive” (line 2, paragraph 2)[C] “mechanically disadvantageous” (line 7, paragraph 3)[D] “evolutionary red herring” (line 9, paragraph 4)

  高度重视教育的传统a strong tradition of valuing education

  1. The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Bailyn's work?

  使他们承受独特的进化力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures

In this section there is a paragraph in English .Translate it into Chinese and write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to do.

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness。

  与众不同,出类拔萃的人:Rare bird

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

  ●高频搭配

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of affairs.

Biologists call this kind of gradual variation over a certain geographic range a “cline” and interpret clines as strong indications that the variation is adaptive, a response to environmental differences. For the starry flounder this interpretation implies that a geometric difference (between fish that are mirror images of one another) is adaptive, that left-eyedness in the Japanese starry flounder has been selected for, which provokes a perplexing question: what is the selective advantage in having both eyes on one side rather than on the other?

[E] Narrowing the search

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

Moreover, the integration of the European community will oblige television companies to cooperate more closely in terms of both production and distribution。

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not。

[A] degree to which Coltrane’s music encompassed all of jazz. [B] repetition of motifs that Coltrane used in his solos. [C] number of his own compositions that Coltrane recorded. [D] indifference Coltrane maintained to musical technique。

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the author's evaluation of Bailyn's fourth proposition?

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

[D] Maintaining realistic expectations

[C] take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists who migrated to colonial North America specifically to acquire land。

[C] It is highly admirable。

  1. According to the text,Bailyn and the author agree on which of the following statements about the culture of colonial New England?

Three recordings illustrate Coltrane’s energizing explorations. Recording Kind of Blue with Miles Davis, Coltrane found himself outside bop, exploring modal melodies. Here he played surging, lengthy solos built largely around repeated motifs — an organizing principle unlike that of free jazz saxophone player Ornette Coleman, who modulated or altered melodies in his solos. On Giant Steps, Coltrane debuted as leader, introducing his own compositions. Here the sheets of sound, downbeat accents, repetitions, and great speed are part of each solo, and the variety of the shapes of his phrases is unique. Coltrane’s searching explorations produced solid achievement. My Favorite Things was another kind of watershed. Here Coltrane played the soprano saxophone, an instrument seldom used by jazz musicians. Musically, the results were astounding. With the soprano’s piping sound, ideas that had sounded dark and brooding acquired a feeling of giddy fantasy。

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

house increases as houses are built up the hill.40. Which of the following phrases from the text best expresses the author’s conclusion about the

Directions:

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized hinterland of the European culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional. However, the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans had powerful effects on North American culture。

One way to begin your search for a good fund is to use the Morningstar star rating. The rating is a useful tool for narrowing the field to funds that have done a good job of balancing return and risk in the past. To assign ratings, Morningstar uses a formula that compares a fund’s risk-adjusted historical performance with that of other funds within four rating groups – domestic stock funds, international stock funds, taxable bond funds, and municipal bond funds。

ranked in order of their support of the thesis.[D] A thesis is stated, three seemingly opposing examples are presented, and their underlying

[C] The colonists imitated the high culture of England, and did not develop a culture that was uniquely their own。

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

[A] It is totally implausible。

Part B

[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers。

Text4

Eating better. Exercising. Investing. There are a lot of things you know should be doing. The problem is that getting started always seems to be the hardest part. For many investors, mutual funds are a good way to go, but trying to sort through the number of available choices – now more than 10,000 – makes this important task appear overwhelming. Let’s look at some ways to cut that number down to a reasonable size, as well as other factors to consider when selecting your first fund。

11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately

Text2

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated。

2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

[D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

[C] Managers'' intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills。

Section Ⅲ Translation

Directions:

  1. The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to

41.

[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions。

[C] bring together disparate facts。

[D] Bailyn failed to test his propositions on a specific group of migrants to colonial North America。

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking。

Coltrane himself probably believed that the only essential characteristic of jazz was improvisation, the one constant in his journey from bebop to open-ended improvisations on modal, Indian, and African melodies. On the other hand, this dogged student and prodigious technician — who insisted on spending hours each day practicing scales from theory books — was never able to jettison completely the influence of bebop, with its fast and elaborate chains of notes and ornaments on melody。

Do not write the address。

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

There’s no free lunch in fund investing: in addition to the sales fees that some fund companies charge, fund investors must also pay management fees and trading costs. Unfortunately, you don’t necessarily get what you pay for – no one has ever shown that more expensive funds provide greater returns. Look for funds with reasonable costs. The expense ratio, which expresses annual costs as a percentage amount, is probably the best number to use when comparing mutual fund costs。

Section Ⅳ Writing

[B] It is partially acceptable。

Directions:

45.

[C] Weighing your financial goals and expectations first

Two stylistic characteristics shaped the way Coltrane played the tenor saxophone: he favored playing fast runs of notes built on a melody and depended on heavy, regularly accented beats. The first led Coltrane to “sheets of sound” where he raced faster and faster, pile-driving notes into each other to suggest stacked harmonies. The second meant that his sense of rhythm was almost as close to rock as to bebop。

44.

[C] Bailyn's description of the colonies as part of an Anglo-American empire is misleading and incorrect。

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not。

[B] identify a problem。

Part A

[B] Paying attention to details

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

[D] By the 1730's,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。

The problem with the above explanation is that the Japanese starry flounder population is almost exclusively left-eyed, and natural selection never promotes a purely less advantageous variation. As other explanations proved equally untenable, biologists concluded that there is no important adaptive difference between left-eyedness and right-eyedness, and that the two characteristics are genetically associated with some other adaptively significant characteristic. This situation is one commonly encountered by evolutionary biologists, who must often decide whether a characteristic is adaptive or selectively neutral. As for the left-eyed and right-eyed flatfish, their difference, however striking, appears to be an evolutionary red herring.36. According to the text, starry flounder differ form most other species of flatfish in that starry flounder [A] are not basically bilaterally symmetric. [B] do not become asymmetric until adulthood. [C] do not all share the same asymmetry. [D] have both eyes on the same side of the head.37. Which of the following best describes the organization of the text as a whole? [A] A phenomenon is described and an interpretation presented and rejected. [B] A generalization is made and supporting evidence is supplied and weighed. [C] A contradiction is noted and a resolution is suggested and then modified. [D] A series of observations is presented and explained in terms of the dominant theory.38. The text supplies information for answering which of the following questions? [A] Why are Japanese starry flounder mostly left-eyed? [B] Why should the eye-sidedness in starry flounder be considered selectively neutral? [C] Why have biologists recently become interested in whether a characteristic is adaptive or

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North America is supported by information in the text?

[A] Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought on North American culture。

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

Directions:

Directions:

Part A

Bailyn's third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants, another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social character of people who came to pre-industrial North America. At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730's, however, American employers demanded skilled artisans。

[D] It is controversial though persuasive。

The ease with which a fish can reverse the effect of the sidedness of its eye asymmetry simply by turning around has caused biologists to study internal anatomy, especially the optic nerves, for the answer. In all flatfish the optic nerves cross, so that the right optic nerve is joined to the brain’s left side and vice versa. This crossing introduces an asymmetry, as one optic nerve must cross above or below the other. G. H. Parker reasoned that if, for example, a flatfish’s left eye migrated when the right optic nerve was on top, there would be a twisting of nerves, which might be mechanically disadvantageous. For starry flounders, then, the left-eyed variety would be selected against, since in a starry flounder the left optic nerve is uppermost。

  1. The primary purpose of the text is to [A] discuss the place of Coltrane in the world of jazz and describe his musical explorations. [B] examine the nature of bebop and contrast it with improvisational jazz. [C] analyze the musical sources of Coltrane’s style and their influence on his work. [D] acknowledge the influence of Coltrane’s music on rock music and rock musicians。

  2. Which of the following best describes the organization of the fourth paragraph? [A] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned and illustrated with three specific examples. [B] A thesis is stated and three examples are given each suggesting that a correction needs to be

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。

[B] The cultural achievements of colonial New England have generally been unrecognized by historians。

8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question

correspondence is explained。

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。

[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture of New England。

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experience with the political development of the United States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。

You and your family are planning for a trip to Hong Kong during the May holiday. Write a letter to a travel agency to explain your travel plans, ask for relevant information, and express your gratitude for a reply. (10 points)

You are going to read a list of headings and a text about how to select a fund. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A–F for each numbered paragraph (41–45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

selectively neutral? [D] How do the eyes in flatfish migrate?39. Which of the following is most clearly similar to a cline as it is described in the second

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on Great Britain。

43.

  1. According to the text, John Coltrane did all of the following during his career EXCEPT [A] improvise on melodies from a number of different cultures. [B] perform as leader as well as soloist. [C] spend time improving his technical skills. [D] eliminate the influence of bebop on his own music。

  2. According to the text a major difference between Coltrane and other jazz musicians was the

20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

In this part, you are asked to write a composition according to the information below. You should write more than 150 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

Flatfish, such as the flounder, are among the few vertebrates that lack approximate bilateral symmetry (symmetry in which structures to the left and right of the body’s midline are mirror images). Most striking among the many asymmetries evident in an adult flatfish is eye placement: before maturity one eye migrates, so that in an adult flatfish both eyes are on the same side of the head. While in most species with asymmetries virtually all adults share the same asymmetry, members of the starry flounder species can be either left-eyed (both eyes on the left side of head) or right-eyed. In the waters between the United States and Japan, the starry flounder populations vary from about 50 percent left-eyed off the United States West Coast, through about 70 percent left-eyed halfway between the United States and Japan, to nearly 100 percent left-eyed off the Japanese coast。

Whatever the market does, try to take it in stride. You’re in for the long haul, so don’t worry about the market’s day-to-day gyrations. Relax and resist the temptation to monitor your first investment daily. Check in on your mutual funds once a month, and give your portfolio a thorough exam every 6 to 12 months. And consider adding to your fund each month. An automatic investment plan makes it a relatively painless process。

[B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced。

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of 100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this state of affairs。

Section I Use of English

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

made to a thesis referred to earlier in the text.[C] A thesis referred to earlier in the text is mentioned, and three examples are presented and

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis。

he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection。

When Coltrane began recording for the Impulse! Label, he was still searching. His music became raucous, physical. His influence on rockers was enormous, including Jimi Hendrix, the rock guitarist, who, following Coltrane, raised the extended guitar solo using repeated motifs to a kind of rock art form。

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text?

[D] relate the experience of the migrants to the political values that eventually shaped the character of the United States。

Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

Text1

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution。

[C] Migrants to colonial North America were more successful at acquiring their own land during the eighteenth century than during the seventeenth century。

Text3

[D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not。

[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given。

Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the United States by applying new social research findings on the experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of pre-industrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions。

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of the colonies and England。

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